THE EFFECTS OF MASTERY VERSUS SOCIAL-COMPARISON PRAISE ON STUDENTS’ PERSISTENCE: A ROLE OF FIXED VERSUS GROWTH MINDSET
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of fixed versus growth mindset and mastery versus social-comparison praise on students’ persistence at calligraphy classes. In this study, a factorial design was conducted. The subjects were 40 Iranian students who were randomly assigned to one of the four experimental equal sized groups by giving them a particular set of instructions. In the first step, mindset was manipulated in the instructions and then subjects got three easy home works followed by praise. The first and third groups were provided mastery feedback, the second and forth groups got social-comparison praise. Then, all subjects were provided by ten difficult home works. The subjects were asked to do as many as home works they like during two weeks or give them up. Two-ways ANOVA analyses of the resulting data showed the growth mindset-mastery praised group (group 3) exhibited the most persistence. The fixed mindset-social comparison praised group (group 2) demonstrated the least persistence. The growth mindset-social comparison praised group (group 1) and the fixed mindset-mastery praised group (group 4) exhibited significantly more persistence than group 2, but less than group 3. The findings highlight that mindset can moderate the affect of praise on students’ persistence.